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Italy has begun easing key restrictions after a two-month coronavirus shutdown. 4.4 million Italians are able to return to work and some limits on movement have been removed in the first European country to impose a lockdown during the pandemic. (May 4)

AP Domestic

ROME – Italy and the United States are a study in contrasts when it comes to the way they confronted the pandemic.

Italy was the first country hit hard after the virus spread beyond China’s borders, and after some early missteps, the country took decisive action. Italy’s national lockdown was the first in Europe during peacetime, and it was stricter and lasted longer than those in other countries. Rules were closely enforced by police with the power to levy fines. 

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Leaders followed the same mask and social distancing guidelines as everyone else, as Italian factories started manufacturing ventilators, masks and other protective equipment. Whenever a cluster of cases emerged, the area was quickly quarantined and the sick cared for by a free public health system.

Most importantly, Italians overwhelmingly followed the rules.

“In Italy, we might have a reputation as being a nation of disorganized rule breakers, but the truth is people tend to follow the advice of their doctors,” said Giovanni Sebastiani, a researcher and member of Italy’s National Research Council. “Our lockdown was long, we only reopened in measured stages, and almost everyone did what they were supposed to do.”

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Italy, a country of 60 million, was the first in the world to have 200,000 official coronavirus cases (on April 28) and the first to record 30,000 deaths (May 7). By late May the daily infection rate dropped from more than 5,000 to the low triple digits – and for the most part, it stayed there until last month. 

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As is the case in most countries in Europe, COVID-19 infections in Italy are rising again, and the country topped 10,000 new infections Friday, breaking its daily high for positive tests. The World Health Organization warned that the virus is rapidly spinning out of control in Europe and the region has reached a tipping point to contain a coronavirus second wave. 

Coronavirus infections per million in Italy and the USA since March 2020 (Photo: Max Roser, Hannah Ritchie, Esteban Ortiz-Ospina and Joe Hasell (2020) – “Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)”. Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: ‘https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus’)

Daily infection rates have spiked to more than 14,000 in Spain, nearly 20,000 in the U.K. and nearly 30,000 in France – all far above their peaks from the spring. The USA has averaged 50,000-60,000 cases per day since the start of October, according to the COVID Tracking Project. The USA has had roughly 8 million cases and more