In 1999 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Gunter Blobel for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localisation in the cell. It was based on this research into how cells use these signals that the functions of glycoproteins were discovered.
Glycoproteins are molecules that have a sugars and protein bonded together. The sugar chains of glycoproteins play a role in determining their destination in the cell or body. The bonding of sugars to proteins to form glycoproteins significantly alters the properties of these proteins.
There are eight sugars that predominantly bond with proteins to form glycoproteins, these are: xylose, galactose, glucose, mannose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid.
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF GLYCOPROTEINS?
Glycans contain biologic information and are the specific sequence of sugars in a glycoprotein that determine its recognition and interaction with other molecules in the cell, often resulting in a biologic effect or response. These impart their function to glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins have many functions in the human body. A few functions of interest is that they are used structurally in the body to form some types of collagen; or are involved in cell-cell interactions, such as in the proteins involved in sperm-egg interactions during fertilisation or how cells stick together to form tissues and communicate with each other. They also function in cell signalling.
Cell signaling is the related study of how healthy cells respond appropriately in health to various stimuli e.g., hormones, growth factors, drugs, cell-cell contact, etc. Glycoproteins on the surface of one cell bind to glycoprotein receptors on another cell, which allows the cells to communicate with one another. These communications then result in other cellular events, such as secretion of bioactive substances, killing of bacteria and cell debris, inhibition of adherence necessary for bacterial infection. Conversely, the responses may be inappropriate in certain diseases, such as cancer and cancer cell metastasis.
Lectins, for example, are proteins that selectively bind glycans. One lectin will recognize and bind mannose at the end of a glycan, whereas others will recognize and bind to glycans containing fucose, galactose, or other sugars. A class of lectins called selectins helps white blood cells to sites of inflammation.
WHAT IS GLYCONUTRITION?
Glyconutrition is the supplementation the 8 principal sugars that are needed by the body to from glycoproteins. They are considered essential nutrients, much the same as essential amino acids or essential fatty acids, which means you have to get them from your diet.
WHY IS GLYCONUTRITION CONSIDERED ESSENTIAL?
Metabolic pathways exist for synthesis of non-glucose sugars from glucose, and it has long been thought that glucose is the most important dietary sugar; it has recently been shown that glycoprotein formation actually prefer to utilize non-glucose essential sugars (e.g. mannose) provided in the diet as substrates. In fact, if only glucose is supplied, the liver severely malfunctions, due to a lack of the other essential sugars, indicating that the body simply cannot synthesize all the other essential sugars …Read More
Every time everyone talks about the law of attraction, money is always the first thing that comes to mind. Of course, that’s the ultimate goal for everyone including myself… to attain financial freedom. Many equate financial freedom to happiness which may be true according to their respective interpretation. However, when you truly understand the interaction between money and this universal law, you will realize that this focus can lead to changes that may not necessarily equate to happiness. Poor thinking and poor practices can lead to manifestations that backfire!
In order for the law of attraction to work for you, it is good to remember a crucial key which is an appreciation for your present state of abundance. A thankfulness for all the blessings that are already in your life which interprets into the realization that there is actually nothing lacking at all but instead a welcome state for more abundance. With an attitude for gratitude, you are aligning your positive feeling into harmony with the Universe.
In gratitude, you realize that money is important, but not more important than your health. A continuing state of health in the pink is a state of freedom that is immeasurable to anything else you would want look forward to experience in your life.
Now you may begin to question, “Is it possible to manifest the level of health that you want using the law of attraction?”
The principles of the law of attraction are applicable to anything you want to bring forth into your life and it does make sense in leading you down the path of good health. You can use it just the way you would apply to manifesting financial freedom by removing the fears and expectation of illnesses that surround you. You know that the Universe sends back to you whatever you send out in your focused thoughts that are strengthened by your emotions.
Good health is a natural state of your body. Believing this becomes your reality but when you allow your body to be overcome with stress, fatigue and over-indulgence, your vitality becomes your own victim. Drained of all energy, your thoughts are weakened into feeling unwell, depleted and beaten. During these challenged state, your thoughts and emotions are easily hijacked to trigger the negative physiological responses in your body. Believing them to be irreversible or incurable will soon become your reality too!
Change your belief system to return your mindset and emotions that attracts good health. Be grateful for every little improvement you noticed in your everyday health as you regain the power to repel the negative thoughts. Your belief system is a powerful tool that can help you to regain your health and vitality. There are no guarantees that you will never fall sick or suffer from an illness but it is important to believe that you deserve good health and complementing with the necessary measures to maintain a positive balance can make it happen.
Being conscious of your own ability to manifest a better …Read More
Dental implants, typically made of titanium, are used to restore teeth that are missing. The implants are placed in the root of the missing tooth and are fused into the actual bone. This is done with an incision in the gums, followed by the actual insertion of the implant. Once the dental implant is inserted, the gums are sewn up and time is given to allow the gums and bone to heal appropriately. The healing process can take several months, but it is essential that the bone and implant are strong enough to hold the prosthetic tooth in place.
Before any procedures can begin, a person must consult with their dentist. During the initial consultation, the dentist, and often times a periodontist, will examine the area that needs the implant. While examining the mouth, they will ensure that there is enough bone to support the procedure. If there is not enough bone, there is always the option of having a bone graft. Other causes for not being a candidate include severe medical conditions, but this varies drastically between patients.
Dental Implant Benefits
Unlike dentures or bridges, dental implants are much more permanent. While bridges are also permanent, they rely on the surrounding teeth to stay in place. However, implants are seen as the absolute best type of prosthetic teeth. Since they are placed into the root of the missing tooth they replace, they are a much more natural replacement for the real tooth.
Aesthetically speaking, dental implants look and feel exactly like real teeth; without telling another person, there is virtually no way for a person to determine that the implant is not real. Bridges alter the surrounding teeth that they are anchored to. This can cause other teeth to start becoming damaged as a consequence. Since dental implants only replace a single tooth at a time and are placed in the tooth’s root, they do not have any adverse effects on the natural teeth or gums.
The dental implants will act as real teeth. This means that they will need to be brushed frequently and have all of the proper dental care associated with natural teeth. Plaque can build up on the new teeth and must be thoroughly removed or it can lessen the longevity of the prosthetic tooth.
Financing and Cost
Depending on the area of replacement, dentist pricing and insurance, a single tooth replacement can cost from $900 – $3,000. If dental insurance will not cover the procedure, there are often financing options available. Some dentists will accept payments or have a list of third-party companies who will finance the procedure and require monthly payments.
For people with missing teeth, having a dental implant can mean the difference between having a confident smile or one that is hidden from the world. Not only will they allow a person to be confident in their smile, but they will once again be able to chew their food in the replacement area. This, along with general gum …Read More
Traditional Chinese health beliefs adopt a holistic view emphasizing the importance of environmental factors in increasing risk of disease. According to Quah (1985), these factors influence the balance of body’s harmony, yin and yang. These are two opposite but complementary forces and, together with qi (vital energy), they control the universe and explain the relationship between people and their surroundings. Imbalance in these two forces, or in the qi, results in illness.
In order to restore the balance, traditional remedial practices may be needed. For example, excess `hot’ energy can be counterbalanced by cooling herbal teas, and vice versa. These beliefs are deeply ingrained among the Chinese, and have been found to be unchanged following migration to Singapore.
Lee, et. al. (2004), found that patients with specific chronic diseases, namely arthritis, musculoskeletal diseases and stroke, were more likely to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This was strongly determined by the ‘chronic disease triad’, perceived satisfaction with care and cultural health beliefs.
Hence the use of TCM is not associated with the quality of doctor-patient interaction. Astin (1998) also agreed that it was seen as being more compatible with the patients’ values, spiritual and religious philosophy, or beliefs regarding the nature and meaning of health and illness.
In traditional Chinese culture, taking medication is thought to be aversive, hence medications tend to be taken only until symptoms are relieved and then discontinued; if symptoms are not obvious, medications will probably never be taken.
Apart from parental cultural beliefs, minor side effects of certain antibiotics such as stomach upset may contribute to the poor adherence of medication. The use of “leftover”, “shared” antibiotics and over-the-counter purchase of antibiotics by parents are common situations in the community.
They think that their children suffer from the same illnesses judging by the similar symptoms, so they would give the “leftover” or “shared” antibiotics to their children and only bring them to their doctors if there is no improvement (Chang & Tang, 2006). This may cause their conditions to deteriorate and may necessitate aggressive treatments later which may have unnecessary side effects.
However, there are small groups of Chinese who also blamed ill-health or misfortunes on supernatural forces, or on divine retribution, or on the malevolence of a ‘witch’ or ‘sorcerer’ (Helman, 1994). Such groups will usually seek cures from their religions.
In Singapore, the Ministry of Health has drawn up the TCM Practitioners’ Ethical Code and Ethical Guidelines to prevent any unscrupulous practitioners from preying on their patients and taking advantage of their beliefs, for example, molesting ignorant patients.
The degree of acculturation has been evidenced in the following case. An old man was brought into our hospital with a week-long history of malaise, nausea and vomiting, and sudden jaundice. He was diagnosed to have an obstructive mass in the liver.
A biopsy revealed hepatocellular carcinoma. The serological test suggested chronic active hepatitis B. When the news broke to his son that his father had cancer, he requested not to disclose that to his father.…Read More